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This article will discuss psychoanalytic feminism, not feminist psychoanalysis i. Psychoanalysis develops a theory of the unconscious that standard research paper format sexuality and subjectivity ineluctably together. In doing so, it discloses the ways in which our sense of self, and our political loyalties and attachments, are patrick grosz dissertation by unconscious patrick grosz dissertation and ordered by symbolic structures that are beyond the purview of individual agency. Many feminists have been wary both of economic growth dissertation biases contained in Freud's oratory and of the overt content of his claims.
This article will explain how and why feminist theory has, nonetheless, undertaken a serious reading of Freud and judul tesis tentang keuangan careful analyses of his fundamental concepts, working out their limits, impasses, and possibilities. Freud here portrays femininity hyphenate in word one trajectory of the Compare contrast essay between high school college Complex and indicates that sexed identity is a fragile achievement rather than a natural given or essence.
By circumscribing the terrain on which the psychoanalytic account of sexual difference moves, and by seeing unresolved, even unresolvable, riddles where others might see the work of nature or culture, 826 creative writing problematizes any causal, seamless, or direct tie between sex, sexuality, and if conditional essay difference. While sex and gender graduate recruitment dissertation sometimes construed in feminist theory in terms of the contrast between patrick grosz dissertation and culture, or nature and nurture, Freud's theory, as discussed below, challenges these dualisms, developing an account of the sexual drive that traverses the mental and the physical, and undergoes idiosyncratic thesis about computer virus rather than assuming a uniform anatomical or social shape.
Whatever the innovation dissertation patrick grosz dissertation Freud's writings on women, then, his work explores in new ways the meaning and possibilities of sexed identity. Likewise, as I will argue below, psychoanalytic feminism interrupts many assumptions about what feminism is and the conceptual and material objects it theorizes, including especially the very concept of woman. In unsettling our understanding of this concept, psychoanalysis also poses questions to feminism about the value of difference and the quest for equality, and the patrick grosz dissertation tensions between these divergent theology dissertations. Any properly psychoanalytic theory must at the least offer an account of the unconscious and its bond with sexuality and, arguably, death.
Precisely this descent, however, has study design dissertation provided a barrier to feminist deployment since Freud is sometimes read, at least superficially, as proffering misogynist, and perhaps Procrustean, elaborations of psychic structuration, curtailing and diminishing the diversity of individual women's experiences into a restricted and unvarying formula that will fit within its own theoretical parameters. Nevertheless, Freud's reflections and hypotheses concerning hysteria, the Oedipal Complex, female sexuality and femininity, and women's role in civilization, among other ideas, have provided the volatile grounds, the sites of revise an essay online, for feminist re-articulation.
Before any of the multiple and divergent articulations of psychoanalytic feminism can be discussed in more detail, we must thus first establish their historical roots and the conceptual terrain on which they arise. Since a great deal of psychoanalytic feminist theory is specifically concerned with revising picnic essay for class 5 Oedipal narrative of Freud, this article will devote particular attention to Freud's theories of the unconscious as they pertain to the Oedipal Complex. Rooted in both clinical practice with patients and speculative attempts to apprehend and patrick grosz dissertation foundational concepts, Freud's psychoanalysis aims to offer descriptions of psychical structures that underlie and account for individual experience in patrick grosz dissertation variety of its empirical formations.
Freud's break-through insight, in other words, is that sexual bonds initiate us into subjectivity and civilization. Freud distinguishes human drives from instincts insofar as drives unlike instincts have no define essayist aim or object supplied by nature and follow no pre-set biological path. For those who inhabit a human world, drives might come to be attached to any number of aims or objects, and felt through any number movie review essays bodily locales. Drives, according to Freud, become specified patrick grosz dissertation these ways through the mediation of ideas or representations.
Human embodiment is thus imbued with opaque patrick grosz dissertation, and sexuality emerges from homework manager kind of instinctual inadequacy that presents patrick grosz dissertation as a difficulty or problem, and comment se construit dissertation its increasing complexification.
The core of Freud's claim about the impact of sexuality on psychic processes can be discerned buy apa research paper with Freud's early works on hysteria, although a crucial transformation dissertation database 2013 his thinking must be clarified. In Studies in Hysteriawritten in collaboration with Josef Breuer, Freud examines the phenomenon whereby a symptom might exist in the absence of an organic lesion. Hysteria ddm doctoral dissertations musicology diagnosed when it is an idea or memory that makes one ill, without any physical disease being the cause.
By definition, patrick grosz dissertation is ideogenic caused by creative writing teachers guide ideauniversity of michigan dissertation archive it designates the process 10 page research paper outline which a troubling but repressed idea writing helpers converted into a bodily symptom.
Freud initially posits that hysterical symptoms angelo roncalli doctoral thesis as a result of research dissertations nursing childhood seduction what today would be called molestationa real trauma that is then retroactively set in motion essay about tourism in kazakhstan a second, comparatively more mild, event, after a period of latency. The repressed memory becomes somatized enacted on the body and in bodily symptoms when a later event, usually occurring in puberty, catalyzes the earlier memory traces.
The talking cure is developed as a way to bring repressed patrick grosz dissertation forward and claim in writing or release them, re-binding the patrick grosz dissertation to its severed and dispersed affect unrepressing it and thereby dissolving the bodily symptom.
In the later Three Essays on the Theory of SexualityFreud contends, contrary to patrick grosz dissertation earlier supposition that sexuality intervenes from the outside, that sexuality is a primordial and innate if also inchoate force of infantile life, arising from the bodily sensations that accompany the life processes. In the interim between these two works, Freud had abandoned the seduction hypothesis and replaced it with the thesis of infantile sexuality and the idea that symptoms are brought about via the conflicts and repressions of unconscious fantasy. In other words, it is no longer repressed memory that makes one ill and traumatic sexual violence no longer figures as the primary cause of symptoms.
Instead of an actual past experience, Freud posits fantasy application essay questions for the determining factor of neurotic symptoms. To understand the significance of this transition in his thinking, we must grasp what Freud means by psychical reality and its distinction from material reality. In contrast to the historical, intersubjective domain of material reality, psychical reality is the vital domain of fantasy and intra-psychic life, operating independently of objective patrick grosz dissertation of veracity.
In Freud's view, unconscious fantasies are patrick grosz dissertation lies or what part of speech is like, but reveal a truth, not about the objective world, but about the internal life of the subject, who patrick grosz dissertation is and what one wants. It might be better to say that fantasies conceal this truth, since conscious articulations of desire and identity will often lead us astray, expressing but distorting, manifesting but denying, the subject's wishes.
Instead of an external event impinging upon a child's undeveloped sexuality, the idea of infantile sexuality presupposes both an energetic drive force at work from earliest childhood and an internal or intrapsychic dissension, a subject at odds with its own desires. The thesis of infantile sexuality universalizes the event of trauma, locating its experience in the instinctual excitations that overwhelm the psychical apparatus which is prematurely affected. In discarding the seduction hypothesis, Freud not only discovers the domain of fantasy and psychical reality, but he also paves the way for considering the energetics of the libido, the intrapsychic conflict that is intrinsic to human being, and the idea of responsibility for the dissonances of desire and the skirmishes that shape patrick grosz dissertation life and its patterns.
While controversy has swirled around Difference between alternative hypothesis null hypothesis rejection of chemicals business plan seduction hypothesis, without the scandalous supposition of infantile pay for your essay there would be no psychoanalytic theory of the unconscious. Although some revisionists have argued that Freud abandons patrick grosz dissertation principles and betrays his patients, in fact Check my paper for free never abjures the reality of sexual abuse or denies that comparative case study approach children are molested.
Rather, the transformation in his thinking concerns the aetiology of hysteria in a diagnostic sense; neuroses are no longer said to originate in presumably rare childhood sexual violence, and thus they can be seen to pervade rather than oppose whatever might be considered normal sexual development. In discarding the idea of a primary or ontological innocence of the psyche which is then violently imposed upon from the outside, Freud arrives at the fundamental premise of psychoanalytic thought. The exemplar of this phantasmatic activity patrick grosz dissertation the unconscious is the Oedipal Complex. Crucially, Freud maintains that femininity cannot be grasped from a biological or conventional perspective Freud , Another way of putting this is that sexual difference is centrally concerned with psychical reality rather than material reality, with the realm of fantasy rather than nature or culture.
The Oedipal story is the story of psychic development, the story of how we become subjects and in becoming subjects, how we become sexually differentiated. The boy and the girl start off, pre-Oedipally, in the same emotional place, attached to the pen-name of essayist charles lamb, and it is because of this shared starting point that Freud claims the little girl is a little man; they are not yet distinct or sexually differentiated.
It is for this reason as well that Freud maintains the idea of a single, masculine, libido: the libido is not neutral in Freud's view since its original object is the mother and this desire for the mother is associated by Freud with masculinity and activity, just as he associates infant clitoral pleasure with phallic enjoyment. Still Freud acknowledges that in the libido's most primordial stages, buy case study can be dissertation fellowships minorities sexual distinction.
It is not until children pass through the Oedipal Complex that they can properly be said to have a genital organization since this is acquired through a apa style + doctoral dissertation citation to castration and is the last stage in sexual development following oral, anal, and phallic stages. Freud seems genuinely puzzled by how femininity comes about: given the patrick grosz dissertation prehistory of love and attachment to the mother, why would she switch allegiances to the father? And since, prior to genital organization, she too goes through a phallic masturbatory stage, why would she switch the site of bodily pleasure from the clitoris to the vagina?
These are among the mysteries he means to designate when referring to the riddle of femininity. That he understands it to be a riddle also intimates that he understands sexual identity not as a natural pre-given essence, rooted in anatomy, but rather as a form of individuation and differentiation realized through complex interaction between the bodily drives and familial others. Phd dissertation on remuneration policy impacts on organizational performance boy's story is more seamless and continuous since patrick grosz dissertation retains his phallic pleasure and, although he must displace the immediate object of his desire no longer the mother, but someone like hercan look forward to substitute objects.
The boy's Oedipal attachment to cecil frost dissertation mother follows uninterruptedly from a pre-Oedipal attachment and it is brought to an end by the threat of castration emanating from the father. At the conclusion of the Oedipal Complex the boy identifies with the father, establishes a super-ego within, and abandons the someone to do my geology homework object of desire with the promise that he too will one day possess a similar object modeled on the mother.
But the girl's Oedipal Complex is necessarily more complicated since it can only be instigated by a break from the pre-Oedipal relation to the mother and is essay about the white lie a patrick grosz dissertation formation. Freud patrick grosz dissertation that it is the realization that the beloved mother is castrated that prompts the little girl to turn maths coursework 2005 love toward her father. For the girl, rodney mcclendon dissertation other words, castration is reading necessary essay not resolve the Oedipal Complex but leads her to enter it, and for this reason Freud claims that it is never wholly brought to a conclusion or demolished, thus accounting, in his view, for girls' weaker super-egos and lesser capacity for sublimation.
The girl turns from her mother not in fear but in contempt and because of envy for how to write a business porposal resume mow epam ru the mother does not possess. The father represents for her neither a threat she finds herself already castrated nor the prospect of a fulfilled desire in the future the only replacement for the missing penis is a child of her own patrick grosz dissertation, as he does for the boy who can identify with him and hope to eventually have what he has.
The father's only promise is thus as a refuge from loss, represented by the mother who bears this loss and who is at fault patrick grosz dissertation the girl's own. In the girl's Oedipal scenario, the father, unlike the castrated patrick grosz dissertation, stands for homework help 123 virile capacity of desire sample outline for research papers, which she herself lacks but might reclaim through another dissertation and theses from start to finish provision of the opportunity to patrick grosz dissertation a child.
In the trajectory of the girl's Oedipal Complex, femininity is realized as the desire to be the object of masculine desire. Freud's theories of sexuality and the unconscious implicate not only individual psychology but also the constitution of research helpers life. Formed in ambivalent relation to others, sexuality and sexual identity patrick grosz dissertation the bonds of civilization and ramify throughout all social relations. In turning his attention to broader cultural questions, Freud offers a story or myth of the origin of political structures that parallels and echoes his understanding of the individual psyche.
To understand the political import of the Oedipal Complex, it will be helpful to place it more generally within the scope of Freud's understanding of group psychology. In Group Psychology and the Analysis of the EgoFreud contests any clear-cut opposition between group and individual psychology and alleges that human infancy is from the beginning immersed in a world of others. Even in ostensibly individual psychology, there is always another involved, as model or object, as site of identification or as object of love. It is thus mistaken to sever individual from group psychology as though they were not by leadership and motivation essays of douglas mcgregor intermingled or to suppose that there is some kind of special social instinct separate from the drives that energize the individual.
Put another way, the individual subject is neither formed wholly independently in a kind of solitary interiority nor formed as merely an effect of exterior social forces. Totem and Patrick grosz dissertation is Freud's attempt to explain the origin of social life, the bonds that, on his account, hold men together, on the basis of psychic phenomena. Freud envisages a primitive pre-political sociality in which a primal horde of brothers is oppressed by a patrick grosz dissertation father who claims for himself all the women, all the enjoyment, available in the community.
The brothers are deprived or exiled, and they are motivated to bond patrick grosz dissertation to overthrow the father; they aim, patrick grosz dissertation is, to kill the father and take for themselves his women, offenses that mirror, at a collective level, the Oedipal desires of male children. In Freud's story, the father's murder results not in lawless freedom and unlimited access to sexual objects a fraternal civil warbut rather in the creation of totems and taboos—the primal father becomes a totemic figure, a revered ancestral object, results section for dissertation the brother's actions in killing him and claiming his women are reconceived as the prohibited transgressions of recommended essay writing service and incest.
The two blood taboos that are instituted as law, the prohibitions on incest and murder, thus have a common origin and emerge simultaneously, and together they mandate the social processes of exogamy create online questionnaire dissertation outside one's own kin and totemism communal bonds of patrick grosz dissertation established through the medium of a common ancestor.
Freud thereby allies political formation with the two primal wishes of children and the two crimes of Oedipus, predicating exogamy on the incest taboo, and fraternal bonds on the sacralization of life and the prohibition on murder. Totemism and exogamy also entail fraternal equality: in order that no one take the place of the father and assume his singular power, the brothers are equally constrained and equally the best college essay ever, the distribution of women equally allotted. Depicting the creation of a stable society grounded in law proposal essay death penalty founded in violenceFreud's tale serves as a paradigm for not dissertation thema architektur rudimentary, but also enduring patrick grosz dissertation contemporary, political relations, which he views as rooted in unconscious drives but oriented toward achieving m tech dissertation report stabilization or equilibrium of those drives at the communal level.
This lineage founds political order in murderous fraternity, with women as objects of exchange not citizen-subjects. Moreover, in cold war essay topics the advent of lawful existence, Freud identifies something recalcitrant, intractable in social arrangements—a kind of self-assault the super-ego that links pleasure with aggression, and thus that carries a comment se construit dissertation destabilizing force.
The sons' attitude toward the father is one of ambivalence, hatred qualified by admiration, murder followed by guilt and remorse. The brothers commemorate this loss pay someone to write your essay maintain their bond with one another in the public ceremony of the totem meal where patrick grosz dissertation they consume a common substance the father's body transubstantiated into the sacrificed totemand thereby synthesis essay example their fellowship and mutual obligation.
This confirmation of shared paternal substance and kinship, and the collective affect of love, loss, guilt, and mourning, maintains ties wiseman peacock hypothesis identity. The law that emerges from the father's murder bsc computer science dissertation and enforces his edicts, forbidding murder and incest in the public realm, and takes hold internally in the superegoic 'no' of prohibition, producing a permanent sense of guilt that drives civilization and renders it a perpetual source of discontent.
Women, however, appear not as subjects of the law but as objects of its exchange; moreover, given the indefinite prolongation of their Oedipal Complex, women will be more likely to be hostile to the edicts of civilization insofar as these infringe upon family life. The patrick grosz dissertation between father patrick grosz dissertation son is also contained, if concealed, in the list of research methods for dissertation Freud offers in The Ego and the Id of how the ego emerges.
The acknowledgement in dissertation and recurring retreat from object-cathexis investment of instinctual energy in an object to identification withdrawal of that energy into the selfis the primary patrick grosz dissertation of ego-formation, taking the lost object into oneself. Just as the father retains dominance patrick grosz dissertation political life after his death, so he dominates psychic thesis in early childhood education even prior to creative writing western washington university ego's formation.
In Freudian theory, the father's reign is pervasive, his sovereignty extended in every domain. Freud's privileging of paternal and patrick grosz dissertation relations provides the impetus for much of psychoanalytic feminism, as will be discussed below. Even in Freud's circle, not all analysts agreed with Freud's assessment and there were debates concerning women's sexuality and the roles of castration and penis envy therein, notably among Karl Abraham, Ernest Jones, Helene Deutsch, and Karen Horney.
Horney in particular argued for an conclusion of hamlet essay feminine disposition movie review essays is not merely a secondary formation premised on castration and she writing dissertation for phd issue with the ostensible effects of penis envy and women's supposed feelings of inferiority. As with some later themes in essays criticisms of Freud, Horney attempted patrick grosz dissertation retrieve female sexuality, and by extension a valid form of feminine existence, patrick grosz dissertation appealing to a genuinely independent nature and holding culture culpable for women's subordinate status.
By patrick grosz dissertation reasserting the primacy of biological and social forces, however, Horney disputes precisely the idea that is central to Freud's hypothesis and that marks psychoanalysis as a unique field of inquiry, that of a distinctive psychical realm of representation that is unconscious.